Sociological Theory

MARTINS, Carlos Benedict. What it is sociology. So Paulo: Brasiliense, 2006. Carlos Benedict Martins, author of the workmanship ' ' What it is Sociology? ' ' , he is sociologist graduated and master Social Sciences for the PUC of So Paulo, beyond doctor in sociology for the University of Paris. Hodiernamente, acts in the practical professor and research in the Department of Sociology of the University of Brasilia (UnB), more specifically in the areas of Sociological Theory and Sociology of the Education.

It is, still, researcher of the CNPq. In synthesis, the workmanship problematiza the sociological question searching the factors motivadores of the sprouting and the affirmation of sociology while science. Martins makes a historical boarding in order to contextualizar and to become visible elements that are not clarividentes, but that they had influenced strong and they are closely linked to the appearance of new science, of the science of the people in the collective scope properly said. The book is divided in: ' ' Introduction; First chapter: sprouting; Chapter second: The formation; Chapter third: The development; Indications for leitura' '. In the first item, ' ' Introduo' ' , the author presents the workmanship and clarifies its pretensions with this. It makes one brief communication concerning what it configures sociology in its essence, of which its objectives while science, of its relation with the capitalist rising society, of its initial experience in the universities and later the prohibition of the education of the same one. In addition, the author deals with the mistake, that is perhaps even though proposital, to equal or to take the sociology as .causing of the marxism and Theory of the Revolution, therefore for the capitalism he is not nothing interesting that the proletariat is organized and mobilized for its rights and sociology was despertando the capacity of criticidade of the mass. The ruling class, bourgeoisie, desired to verwhelm sociology and tried to convince others that this optimum age.


The general hospital allows the psychoanalyst to put in test the ethics of the psychoanalysis, supported for the ethical imperative not to twist ahead of its desire. Adoecer implies in a transformista change in the aspects that even though involve the mesmice of the daily one, or even though the superfluity of the conditions of inerncia of the proper life. ' ' It brings in itself resqucios of the contemporaneidade lived in mago of its ocorrncia' '. (Angerami-Camon, 1996, P. 191). FINAL CONSIDERAES The relation of the man with the proper body presents one of its bigger sufferings. The body has strange a familiar statute and at the same time, what it implies in discomfort.

Lacan initially approached the question of the body for the image. In ' ' The stadium of the mirror as formador of the function of eu' ' (1998 1949, p.97) it introduces the idea of the stadium of the mirror as an identification, the transformation produced in the citizen when it assumes an image, leading to the construction of the notion of I. It is of the suspicion to the reduction to the proper body that appears the affection of the anguish. The representation that each person has of same itself is tied its corporal image. As the identity is constructed from a complete and complete body, the situation of an illness threat the sense to feel itself complete, consisting in that it puts in risk the existence of the person. If inevitably presentifica the human suffering in a hospital institution – the anguish, the sadness, the solitude, the courage, inherent in the human being and ahead evidenced of situations of urgency and acasos of the life, mobilizes in the hospital, doctors and other professionals and constantly legitimizes to the participation of the psychoanalyst in the diverse units of treatment, demanding a psychoanalysis renewed and ' ' reiventada' '. The cardiac surgeries, beyond sharing common aspects to other types of surgeries, have as especificidade all the symbology that the heart presents in our culture. The patient brings its fancies in relation to the surgery and the proper heart – this a vital agency, motor center of the circulation of the blood and the supposed headquarters of moral sensitivity, of the passions, feelings, love and affection.

When leaning over on the thematic one of the configuration of the imaginary one in the hospitalization process we come across ourselves with the question that establishes the limits of imaginary with the reality; it is as if the citizen had in adoecer an intermittent confrontation between what it had conceived for its life previously and the reality that is presented it in terms of existencial concretude from this, emerges the consequences of the cardiac surgery in the behavior of the citizen. A confrontamento between what experience in relation to the suffering and the idealizao on its condition of fullness, where it does not have place for the sprouting of the possibility of adoecer. In such a way, any that are the fancies of the citizen, the psychologist has for function to recognize its importance patient it and to understand what he is involved in this suffering, observing intently and with patience its words and silence.